Research and development (R&D) costs include all primary costs directly related to this function, as well as internal services and imputed depreciation. These costs are incurred for:
- Development of new products and services
- Improvement of existing products and services
- Development of new production processes
- Improvement of existing production processes
- Cost for patents
- Purchase price for product and process know-how to the extent not capitalized
The research and development costs amounted to CHF 144 million (2015: CHF 185 million) and represent the full range of R&D activity. However, the consolidated income statement discloses research and development costs of only CHF 84 million (2015: CHF 103 million), as the remainder of such costs are absorbed in “Cost of goods sold” for R&D products and services sold.